Table of Contents
A physical or chemical process in which something (atoms, molecules or ions) takes in another substance.
A disposable, rechargeable battery with a high energy density that has storage longevity. Mostly used in consumer electronics such as remote controls, flashlights, etc.
Elements in a metallic matrix that make up a partial or complete solid solution.
Rotating machines or generators that use a form of electrical alternating current. Widely used in automotive or other combustion engines.
The average humidity of the surroundings.
The average temperature of the surroundings.
A unit of electric charge measured as 3600 amp-seconds of current of one amp for one hour.
The electrode by which current enters a battery. While discharging the battery, the negative electrode is the anode. When charging the battery, the positive electrode is the anode.
A combination of electrochemical cells working together to produce voltage or electric current.
A device forcing electric current into an alternate cell.
A cylinder shaped reel around which insulated wire is wound.
Measured in amp-hours, capacity is a battery's ability to store an electrical charge.
A dry cell less expensive battery that is commonly packaged by manufacturers when selling products that include batteries. Labeled as ""General Purpose"" batteries, they are commonly used in clocks or remote controls where the power drain is typically lower.
The opposite of the anode. While discharging the battery, the positive electrode is the cathode. When charging the battery, the negative electrode is the cathode.
The part of a battery used to extract electricity from a chemical reaction.
The measurement of a battery in a discharging state.
A process by where the current drawn during the discharge of a battery remains the same.
A process by where the current during the discharge of a battery increases as the battery voltage decreases.
A process by where the resistance of the equipment load remains unchanging throughout discharge.
A test in which a battery is discharged to a prescribed end point voltage without interruption.
A derived unit of electrical charge (SI). One coulomb = the amount of electric charge transferred in one second by a steady current of one amp.
Commonly used for trolley buses or trams, current collectors lead electrical current from lines or rails to the electrical equipment they power.
The current per unit active area of the surface of an electrode.
The current withdrawn from a battery during discharge.
The low limit voltage at which a battery discharge is considered complete.
The number of cycles (a sequence where a battery is discharged and recharged) under specified conditions that are available from a secondary battery.
The ratio of the quantity of electricity (usually in ampere-hours) removed from a battery to its rated capacity.
The opposite of absorption. A physical or chemical process in which something (atoms, molecules or ions) releases another substance.
Direct current or DC is a one directional flow of electrical charge.
The withdrawal of electrical energy into a load.
The amps at which electrical current is taken from a battery.
A cell with immobilized electrolyte. A battery with only enough moisture in it to allow current to flow.
The period of time in which the battery is in use.
Discharge or charge power, in watts, expressed as a multiple of the rated capacity of a cell or battery that is expressed in watt-hours. For example, the E/10 rate for a cell or battery rated at 17.3 watt-hours is 1.73 watts.
The movement of electric flow along a conductor.
An electrochemical cell referred to as either an anode or cathode.
A conducting medium in which the flow of current is associated with the movement of ions.
Negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom.
The prescribed voltage at which the discharge (or charge, if end-of-charge voltage) of a battery may be considered complete.
Usually expressed in watt-hours, energy is the output of a battery or cell.
The ratio of the energy available from a battery to its volume (Wh/L) or weight (Wh/kg).
Discharging a cell in a battery, by the other cells or an external power source, below zero volts into voltage reversal.
In an electrical system, a fuse is used to protect against excessive current.
In a lead-acid battery, excessive charging will cause the emission of hydrogen and oxygen as water of the electrolyte is broken down by electrolysis. This is the process of gassing.
A machine that converts one form of energy into another.
A common return path for electric current. A connection between an electric circuit and the earth.
Any chemical or industrial by-product that is destructive to the environment.
The standard unit of frequency. The most common uses are to describe radio and audio frequencies.
A device used to measure the specific gravity of a liquid.
A test during which a battery is subjected to alternate periods of discharge and rest according to a specified discharge regime.
The opposition exhibited by a circuit element to the flow of direct current (D.C.).
The maximum current where the battery will perform to its fullest potential under a continuous drain.
Invented in 1859, it is the oldest type of rechargeable battery. This battery has lead electrodes and sulphuric acid as the electrolyte. It's main application today is in the automobile industry.
Lithium, or Li, is a soft silver-white metal and is the lightest of all metals.
A very light, rechargeable battery commonly used in notebook computers, cell phones and camcorders. As one of the newer batteries out today, this battery can give 40% more capacity than a comparable sized NiCd battery.
The discharge current provided by a battery.
A black crystalline compound, MnO2, that is used as the cathode in standard and alkaline disposable batteries.
Found in NiCd rechargeable batteries, it is the phenomenon that causes a battery to hold less of a charge than it's capable of. These batteries gradually lose their maximum capacity if they are repeatedly recharged after only being partially discharged.
The voltage of a battery midway in the discharge between the start of the discharge and the end voltage.
A unit of electric current. It's name is often shortened to amp and it is measured as one coulomb per second.
A terminal or electrode which has an excess of electrons.
NiCd is a type of rechargeable battery that uses nickel oxide hydroxide and cadmium as electrodes. Widely used in applications such as power tools, they have a high discharge rate but have low capacity compared to other rechargeable batteries.
This battery uses a hydrogen absorbing alloy for the negative electrode instead of cadmium. They are interchangeable with most NiCd batteries, but NiMh batteries have a greater capacity and they are more environmentally friendly.
The voltage given by a manufacturer as the recommended operating voltage for their specific product.
A measure of resistance that causes one volt to produce a current of one ampere.
The supply voltage with the load disconnected or broken.
Having component parts connected in parallel. i.e. a parallel circuit.
In electricity, the condition of being positive or negative.
Increasing the resistance of the cell, polarization is the deposit of gases on the electrodes of a cell.
A terminal or electrode which has a shortage of electrons.
A primary battery is a disposable battery as opposed to a rechargeable battery.
A periodic current drain of higher than normal drain rates.
A charge time that is between slow charge and fast charge (typically 3 to 6 hours for a NiCd).
Usually specified by the battery manufacturer, it is the number of amp-hours a battery can supply under certain conditions.
As opposed to a disposable battery, a rechargeable battery can be recharged many times and used again, although the initial cost of a rechargeable battery may be sizable.
One or more deep discharge cycles below 1.0 volt/cell at a very low, controlled current. Recondition helps to revert large crystals to small desirable sized, often restoring the battery to it's fullest capacity.
Often measured in ohms, resistance is the measure to which an object opposes an electric current running through it.
The changing of the normal polarity of a battery.
A venting mechanism designed into a cell which activates under specific conditions of abuse to relieve internal pressure.
A battery that can be recharged and reused many times.
The capacity of a battery that is lost when it is not used or simply sitting on the shelf.
The expected life time of a product.
The duration of storage under specified conditions at the end of which the battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance.
Often times called a short, it is a current that is allowed to travel on a different path than where it was originally intended. This can cause circuit damage, overheating or fire.
A semi constant current that typically charges overnight 14-16 hours.
A battery that offers communication between itself and the user to let you know when it's in need of charging.
The energy per unit of mass.
The weight of the sulfuric acid electrolyte in a battery compared to water.
The use of batteries in which they are charged by an application to be ready for use if the primary power to the application fails. Also called float or backup.
The capacity remaining in a battery.
The process where a lead-acid battery loses its charge after it's been kept in a discharged state for too long.
A device at the end of a cell or wire for joining electrical circuits together.
A resistor whose resistance varies with temperature.
A temperature sensitive switch.
A low rate charge following the main charge, designed to ensure maximum capacity.
The unit of measure of electrical potential. For short, often called a volt.
When the peak voltage of the battery drops more quickly than normal as it is being discharged or used.
A device designed to automatically regulate and maintain a constant voltage level.
The ratio of the energy output of a cell or battery to its volume (Wh/L).
A measurement of energy. One watt = one joule of energy per second.
A non-rechargeable battery powered by oxidizing zinc and oxygen. Widely used in hearing aids and film cameras.